Numb3rs: Euler's Formula

Euler’s Formula is one of the most important formula’s in mathematics since it allows the simplification of many different ideas.

Background

Named after Leonhard Euler:

• Born 15 April 1707
• Basel, Switzerland
• Death 18 September 1783 (aged 76)
• St. Petersburg, Russia
• Swiss mathematician and physicist
• Many important discoveries from infintesimal calculus to graph theory
• Especially in mathematical analysis - Euler’s formula
• Furthermore in many different physics and astronomy related topics

The Idea

For any real number x:

It established a connection between the complex exponential function and the trigonometric funtions.

The Proof

The Maclaurin Series (A special case of the Taylor Series) of the exponential function is:

With the basic facts about different powers of i:

And the Taylor Series of $$\sin$$ and $$\cos$$:

We can proove:

Applications

One of the best examples of this connection being used is the Fourier Series

Sources

• http://www.gap-system.org/~history/Biographies/Euler.html